It is mostly found in South-East Asia and the South West Pacific as an important weed. It is considered a wild weed, wild peanut or pastiche that has many healing benefits. The plant is an herbaceous annual foetid herb. The plant can grow 30–90 centimeters (12–35 in) tall and consists of alternative pinnate leaves with leaflets mostly with three opposite pairs that are obviate in shape with a rounded tip. The leaves grow up to 3–4.5 centimeters long. The stems have distinct smelling foliage when young. The flowers are in pairs in axils of leaves with five petals and pale yellow in color. Cassia tora yellow flowers occur in pairs with stamens of unequal length producing pods that are somewhat flattened or four angled, 10–15 cm long and sickle shaped, hence the common name sickle pod. There are 30–50 seeds within a pod. The seeds, roots and leaves from this plant has been shown to be very beneficial to the modern system of herbal medicines.

The plant is known for its significant medicinal value. The Cassia plant mainly grows in the tropical regions of India and is commercially supplied in bulk from regions of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

Cassia Tora Seed or Jue Ming Zi in Chinese, or the ripe seed of sickelpod cold nature of the fruit is excellent for cooling down the body. Cassia Tora Seed is highly valued in ancient Chinese herb.

This bitter and salty Cassia Tora Seed has also been credited as an eyesight booster. Cassia Tora can also helps by removing intensive heat from the liver and improving vision, moisturizing intestine and easing the bowels. Great help for losing weight as well.

Properties:
Sweet, bitter and salty in flavor, slightly cold in nature, it is related to the liver, kidney and large intestine channels.

Uses of Cassia Tora

  • The parts like roots, seeds and leaves of this plant can be used in curing various health problems and diseases.
  • The root is used in snakebite.
  • The dried and fresh leaves are used in northern Nigeria in the treatment of ulcers, ring worm and other parasitic skin diseases. In cultures, the leaf extracts of the plant showed anti-bacterial activity. Antiviral activity, particularly against Newcastle disease virus and Vaccinia virus.
  • The Cassia Tora Seed, ripe seed of sickle pod, is a highly valued ancient Chinese herb. As defined in Ayurveda these seeds of Cassia Tora are great laxatives, ophthalmics, anthelmintics and expectorants. Its main constituents include derivatives of anthraquinone, chrysophanol, emodin, rhein and fixed oil. Due to the cold nature of the fruit from which they are extracted, the Cassia Tora seeds are the excellent sources for cooling down the body. Used as aperients and purgatives the seeds are help to loosen the bowels to relieve constipation.
  • Traditionally, the leaves of Chakvad are popular as potherb. It is used as a natural pesticide in the organic farms of India. It has been reported that Cassia tora contains chrysophanic acid-9-anthrone which is an important fungicide.
  • The intake of these seeds can cure skin diseases like ring worm, itch and psoriasis. These herbal seeds can also remove intense heat from the liver and improve the acuity of sight and loosen the bowels to relieve constipation.
  • The leaves contain anthroquinones, and are employed in weak decoction for treating childhood teething, fever and constipation.
  • The paste of the ground, dried root is used in Ayurveda as a treatment for ringworm and snakebite.
  • However when Cassia Tora is used together with self-heal Spica Prunellae and Cape jasmine fruit (FructusGardeniae) can be god remedy for conjunctivitis or inflammation of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and is continued over the forepart of the eyeball. This can even cure photophobia, or intolerance to light, due to fire of excess types in the liver channel. It is frequently used together with milk vetch seed or Semen AstragaliComplanati for blurred vision due to yin deficiency of the liver and kidneys. The sickle senna seed decoction, syrup and tablets is most effective for hyperlipemia, the presence of excess fat or lipids in the blood.
  • The modern researches reveal that the fresh seed of this plant contains chrysophanol, obtusin, aurantio-obtusin and vitamin A. It contains anthra-glucoside which is known for its laxative effect. Cassia seed mixture with water can inhibit dermatomyces, while its alcohol infusion is known to inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms like staphylococcus, bacillus diphtheriae, bacillus coli, typhoid and paratyphoid bacillus.
  • In addition to being used as medicinal herbs, the seeds are also used as a mordant in dyeing. They can be roasted and ground to be used as a coffee substitute. As the dehydrated seed of Cassia plant has good protein, it can be used as a full of protein feed for livestock and birds. Growing as leguminous weed in several parts of India, this is also used as fodder for animals and as a feed ingredient for carps.
Cassia Tora L., (Cassia obtusifolia L.), Caesalpiniaceae, is a wild crop and grows in most parts of India as a weed. A natural gelling agent which has industrial and food applications is made commercially from the seed. Cassia grows in hot, wet, tropical climates both wild and commercially. Cassia is a tonic, carminative and stimulant. Cassia contains 1-2 % volatile cassia oil, which is mainly responsible for the spicy aroma and taste. The primary chemical constituents of Cassia include cinnamaldehyde, gum, tannins, mannitol, coumarins, and essential oils (aldehydes, eugenol, and pinene); it also contains sugars, resins, and mucilage, among other constituents. Cassia tora powder made from cassia tora seeds and cassia tora splits are some ancient natural ingredients. In India, cassia tora is used as a natural pesticide in organic farms. Roasted seeds are substituted for coffee, like tephrosia seeds. Cassia tora powder is most popularly used in the pet-food industry. It is mix with guar gum for use in mining and other industrial application. Cassia gum is the purified flour from the endosperm of the seeds of Cassia tora and Cassia obtusifolia which belong to the leguminosae family. Seeds of Cassia occidentalis are a naturally occurring contaminant in the source material. The intended use of Cassia gum is as thickener, emulsifier, foam stabilizer, moisture retention agent and/or texturizing agent in cheese, frozen dairy desserts and mixes, meat products and poultry products. Cassia gum is combined with other hydrocolloids such as Carrageenan or Xanthan gum, they will synergistically form gels with unique properties.
The seed consists of an outer husk, an endosperm (cassia tora split) and the ovary or germ. Only the endosperm or split, which contains mainly polysaccharides, is used for the production of the cassia gum. Both husk and germ are removed in the de-husking and splitting process. The impact of the splitting procedure is that both husk and germ are loosened from the endosperm and made brittle by heating and can be removed in the subsequent purification procedure after pulverization. The split (endosperm), however, remains intact at these temperatures. Due to its much greater particle size, the split can be separated from husk and germ particles through a couple of physical cleaning steps. The splitting procedure starts with roasting of the seeds. All seeds are heated for several minutes. During the roasting process the endosperm (split) remains intact and flexible, while husk and germ, which are more sensitive to heat, become brittle. Mechanical stress pulverizes husk and germ and the powder is separated from the intact split by sieving. Remaining traces of husk and germ on the split particles are finally removed through a series of physical cleaning steps.

Governing Information

  • Cassia gum is approved for use in Europe by the Commission Directive (EEC No. E 499) and is listed in the Annex of the Council Directive (70/524/EEC) as a stabilizer (thickening and gelling agent) in the manufacture of canned pet foods (for cats and dogs).
  • It is also approved for use in Japan and is listed as a food additive in The Ministry of Health and Welfare Announcement No. 160 (10 August 1995).
  • A panel of experts in the areas of toxicology, pharmacology and food science was assembled to review the safety of cassia gum for use as a thickening agent in human and pet foods in the United States.
  • The available data on cassia gum and structurally related gums demonstrate a lack of toxic effects in animals. This review is the basis for the consideration of cassia gum as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under conditions of its intended use as a thickening agent in human and pet foods.
  • Abbreviations: FFDCA, Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; GRAS, generally recognized as safe; NTP, National Toxicology Program; OECD, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development; PADI, possible average daily intake

Regulatory Status

  • United States TSCA
  • Canada NDSL
  • Korea ECL
  • Australia AICS
  • Europe EINECS

Gel (synergy) with Carrageenan or Xanthan Gum

Cassia gum forms firm, thermoplastic gels with carrageenan. As the level of cassia gum is increased, the gel strength of carrageenan solutions is also increase. Cassia gum and carrageenan gel is stable due to the excellent retorting stability of cassia gum. Cassia gum and xanthan gum, on their own, do not have the ability to form gels. But cassia gum combined with xanthan gum, aqueous dispersions of cassia gum form cohesive, elastic gels. As with carrageenan, cassia is more efficient at forming gels with xanthan gum than other galactomannans, enabling lower total hydrocolloid levels in finished formulations. This is due to the unique branched polysaccharide galactose/mannose structure of cassia gum. Cassia gum is manufactured from the endosperm of Sennaobtusifolia or Cassia obtusifolia or Cassia Tora or Cassia Occidentalis). It is mainly used as a thickener and gelling agent in foods and pet foods. Cassia grows mainly in subtropical regions and is grows mostly wild and occasionally cultivated. Cassia Gum is comprised of at least 75% polysaccharide consisting primarily of a linear backbone chain of mannose with side galactose units The ratio of Mannose :Galactose is about 5: 1. Cassia gum, like LBG can form gels with other colloids like Carrageenan and Xanthan and is therefore used in the manufacture of gels in the food and pet food applications in combination of other colloids. Cassia Gum in different languages for the better understanding of our global clients:-

Catalan Goma cassia
Croatian Cassia guma
Danish Cassiagummi
Dutch Cassiapitmeel
Finnish Cassiakumi
French Gomme de cassia
German Cassiakernmehl
Polish Gumy cassia
Portuguese Goma de cassia
Romanian Guma de cassia
Slovenian Guma cassia
Spanish Goma cassia

Method of Manufacturing Cassia Gum Powder:

The seeds are dehusked and de-germed by milling and screening of the endosperm. Cassia Gum is high molecular weight (approximately 200,000 – 300,000) polysaccharides composed of galactomannans; the mannose:galactose ratio is about 5:1. Semi-refined Cassia gum normally containing detectable amounts of anthraquinones. The raw material seed is subject to different mechanical cleaning steps in order to remove other impurities, such as, farm waste, undeveloped seeds and stones. After cleaning raw material is subject to a de-husking and splitting process.Thermal and mechanical treatment removing husk and germ from the seeds resulting in splits. Finally the splits are ground to a uniform small particle size powder.

Chemical Structure and Physical Properties of Cassia Gum

  • Cassia gum is hot water soluble and requires heating to fully solubilise and reach full viscosity in aqueous solutions.
  • Cassia Gum is comprised of at least 75 % polysaccharide consisting primarily of a linear chain of 1,4-β-D-mannopyranose units with 1,6 linked α-D-alactopyranose units.
  • The ratio of mannose to galactose is about 5:1.
  • Cassia gum forms firm thermoplastic gels with carrageenan.
  • Cassia gum and xanthan gum, on their own, do not have the ability to form gels. But cassia gum combined with xanthan gum, aqueous dispersions of cassia gum form cohesive, elastic gels.
  • Cassia is known as one of the best gelling agent, thickening additives, emulsifying additives and stabilizing additives.

Gelling properties of refined cassia gum powder:

Refined Cassia gum is a high number of galactose side chains prohibit the synergistic gelling effect with anionic polymers. As a result, a smaller amount of hydrocolloid blend containing cassia gum is needed in a food product to achieve the same effect as with carrageenan alone or blends of carrageenan with other related galactomannans.

Mainly uses of Cassia Gum:

  • Gelling Agent
  • Thickener
  • Emulsifier
  • Stabiliser
  • Bonding agent